A job hazard analysis (JHA) is a proactive technique that focuses on specific job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Ideally, after you identify uncontrolled hazards, you will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.
The job hazard analysis process is one of the best ways to determine and establish proper work procedures or standard operating procedures. A job hazard analysis is one component of the larger commitment of a safety and health management system, which collaboratively looks at safety risks with management, engineering and the work force.
A management team can use the findings of a job hazard analysis to eliminate and prevent hazards in their workplaces. This is likely to result in fewer worker injuries and illnesses; safer, more effective work practices; reduced workers’ compensation costs; and increased worker productivity and moral. The analysis also can be a valuable tool for training new employees in the steps required to perform their jobs safely and efficiently.
For a job hazard analysis to be effective, management must demonstrate its commitment to safety and health and follow through to correct any uncontrolled hazards identified. Otherwise, management will lose credibility and employees may hesitate to go to management when dangerous conditions threaten them.
A job hazard analysis can be conducted on all jobs in your workplace. Priority should go to the following types of jobs:
- Jobs with the highest injury or illness rates
- Jobs with the potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no history of previous accidents
- Jobs in which one simple human error could lead to a severe accident or injury
- Jobs that are new to your operation or have undergone changes in processes and procedures
- Jobs complex enough to require written instructions
Key factors to a successful and sustainable job hazard analysis program include the following:
- Involve your employees and frontline supervisors.
- Review your accident history and know the details associated with the incidents.
- Conduct a preliminary job review to become familiar with the job task and process.
- List, rank and set priorities for hazardous jobs.
- Clearly outline the steps and tasks associated with the job.
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following:
- What can go wrong?
- What are the consequences?
- How could it arise?
- What are other contributing factors?
- How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
To make your job hazard analysis useful, document the answers to these questions in a consistent manner.
Describing a hazard in this way helps to ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and implement hazard controls help target the most important contributors to the hazard.
Good hazard scenarios describe:
- Where it is happening (environment),
- Who or what it is happening to (exposure),
- What precipitates the hazard (trigger),
- The outcome that would occur should it happen (consequence), and
- Any other contributing factors.
This program is an onsite program tailored specifically to your company’s needs. We address employee symptoms proactively – resolving issues before injuries occur.